BBSRC-funded scientists at Rothamsted Research have made a discovery which could help in the fight against the parasitic Varroa mite, which is devastating to bee colonies. They have developed a test for the detection and management of resistance to an insecticide used to treat Varroa-infected honey bee hives.
There has been a significant decline in European honey bee colony numbers over recent years and hive infestations of the mite, Varroa destructor, are an important factor in contributing to this decline. One of the most effective treatments for removing the mites from a hive is the use of selective pyrethroid insecticides that are highly toxic to the mites, but safe for use with bees.
The intensive use of these compounds over the years has led to widespread resistance in Varroa populations, greatly reducing their effectiveness. Rothamsted Research scientists, who are strategically funded by BBSRC, have now identified the genetic change that causes this resistance in UK mite populations. They have also developed a diagnostic test that allows rapid monitoring of the frequency of resistant mites within individual infected bee hives. The test provides an accurate measure of resistance within Varroa-infected hives before treatment and hence it enables informed decisions of the likely effectiveness of the available treatments. The study is published today in the journal PLOS ONE.
The diagnostic test that Dr González-Cabrera and his colleagues have developed enables individual mites to be analysed quickly and accurately for the presence or absence of the mutation. The test is robust and can be applied to live or dead individual mites making it easy to assess the frequency of the mutation in infected hives by taking the debris from the hive and simply separating out the mites. Initial results using the test have shown that the mutation is only present at high frequency within hives that have a recent history of pyrethroid treatment. This indicates that the resistance mechanism is less frequent and widespread within Varroa infected hives than is generally thought. Therefore, by carefully monitoring the distribution and frequency of the mutation in local Varroa populations using the diagnostic test, it should be possible to develop a pro-active resistance management programme. Such programme could involve rotation of different products (including pyrethroids) aimed at maintaining a more effective control of this highly damaging pest.
Professor Lin Field, Head of Biological Chemistry and Crop Protection at Rothamsted Research, said: "Given that honeybees are an essential component of the nation's biodiversity and contribute to food security by pollinating some crops, it is vital that we identify the best possible management strategies of the Varroa mite. Our work contributes new tools in order to effectively manage the health and abundance of bee colonies".
Notes to editors
Publication: An Amino Acid Substitution (L925V) Associated with Resistance to Pyrethroids in Varroa destructor.
About Rothamsted Research
We are the longest running agricultural research station in the world, providing cutting-edge science and innovation for nearly 170 years. Our mission is to deliver the knowledge and new practices to increase crop productivity and quality and to develop environmentally sustainable solutions for food and energy production.
Our strength lies in the integrated, multidisciplinary approach to research in plant, insect and soil science.
Rothamsted Research receives strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) of £27.2M per annum. www.rothamsted.ac.uk
BBSRC invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond.
Funded by Government, and with an annual budget of around £467M (2012-2013), we support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.